The Electrochemical Kelvin Probe allows to measure CPD (Contact Potential Difference) value and evaluate a work function of electrochemical samples that requires an electrolyte to provide the electric contact. The measurements may be performed not only in a single point of a sample surface but the whole sample’s surface may be scanned.
Measurements of work function is particularly useful in semiconductor physics as it provides the position of Fermi level of examined material.
The Kelvin Probe equipped with the light source makes it possible to examine surface states of electrons of the sample. Surface states of electrons play significant role in the electric charge transfer, which is especially important for photovoltaic materials and in photoelectrochemistry.
Electrochemical Kelvin Probe is an innovative setup with dedicated electrocemichal cuvette. By providing the new type of cuvette, setup where the examined surface is both in contact with the electrolyte and is located on the top of the cuvette, the CPD measurements are conducted in conditions that fulfil the requirement that the tip interacts mainly with the sample’s surface. Still, the sample remains in contact with an electrolyte.
The Kelvin Probe may be equipped with the light source that makes it possible to examine surface states of electrons of the sample.
Light delivery to the sample can be performed in two manners: from the top where sample’s surface is illuminated and from the bottom where the sample-electrolyte interface is exposed to the radiation.
By comparing CPDs of a dry sample and the sample in contact with electrolyte one can explore electrochemical cell voltage maintained by a possible chemical reaction between the sample and reference electrode.
Optionally, the Electrochemical Kelvin Probe may be equipped with the inert gas flow system to provide neutral environment inside the Faraday’s cage.
The instrument consists of the probe on the stand, the electronic control system and the Faraday’s cage.click the picture to enlarge
The probe tip is the component fully designed and manufactured by Instytut Fotonowy Sp. z o.o. It provides:
The tip oscillations are generated with an electromagnet.click the picture to enlarge
The key element of the Electrochemical Kelvin Probe is the electrochemical cuvette set, where the sample is placed directly on the top of the cuvette.
Light delivery can be performed in two manners: from the top where sample’s surface is illuminated and from the bottom where
the sample-electrolyte interface is exposed to the radiation. Two types of electrochemical cuvettes may are dedicated for each examination case.
The whole measurement instrument is covered with Faraday’s cage which shields the system from the surroundings. The grounding socket is situated on the cage.click the picture to enlarge
Optionally, the Faraday’s cage may be equipped with the inert gas flow system which provides neutral environment during the measurements.
The following specification may be changed in terms of further process of appliance development.
|Voltage range||-5 V .. 5 V|
|Voltage measurement nominal resolution||0.15 mV|
|Measurement technology||2-channel lock-in amplifier|
|Sample holder||motorized translation stage X-Y,
|Sample stand||stand for sample layer/ stand for solid state sample|
|Range of stage movement||5 cm x 5 cm|
|Min sample move step||1 µm|
|Tip type||Au, mesh, dia. 2.5 mm|
|Tip Z positioning||motorized Z stage|
|Positioning with respect to a sample||light barrier|
|Tip Z positioning resolution||10 µm|
|Spectral range for wave guides||200 nm .. 2000 nm (depending on a waveguide)|
|Liquid waveguides selection (Lumatec)|
|Auxiliary sensors||humidity and temperature|
|Internal Faraday cage illumination||white LED|
|X-Y positioning aid||laser sample placement indicator|
|PC connectivity||USB 2.0|
|Size||40 x 40 x 45 cm|
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